Where is the Biggest Garbage Dump on Earth? | #aumsum

It’s AumSum Time Humans have already created a huge garbage
patch in the Pacific ocean. How big is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? It cannot be bigger than me. You are unbelievable. Every year, we dump around 8 million tonnes
of plastic waste in the oceans. Now, since plastic does not degrade easily. It keeps floating in the oceans for hundreds
of years. Over time, strong winds and natural ocean
currents cause this plastic to gather. In five massive garbage patches. The biggest garbage patch of them all is the
Great Pacific Garbage Patch or GPGP. It is in the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii
and California. According to estimations, nearly 1.8 trillion
plastic pieces are floating in the GPGP. Which weigh about 90,000 tonnes. Also, some people say that the GPGP is twice
the size of Texas. Environmentalists are actively trying to develop
alternatives for plastic. We should also contribute and reduce its use. AumSum is going to entertain you with his
15 silly dance moves. Watch 1 move after every topic. And give it a super cool name in the comments
section below. Latent heat of vaporization. Why does steam cause more severe burns than
boiling water? It is because steam is jealous of boiling
water. No. It is because of latent heat of vaporization. Latent heat of vaporization is the amount
of heat energy required. To change unit mass of liquid into vapor at
atmospheric pressure at its boiling point. Trust me. Everything just went over my head. Alright. I will explain it to you. Boiling water contains only a specific amount
of heat energy required for it to boil. However, as steam is formed from boiling water,
it contains heat energy of boiling water. Along with the latent heat of vaporization. Hence, as steam has more heat energy, it can
cause more severe burns than boiling water. Properties of a liquid. Why is a diver able to cut through water in
a swimming pool? Simple, because I taught him. No. This is because of intermolecular force. Intermolecular force is force of attraction
present in between molecules of solids, liquids or gases. Now, the intermolecular forces in liquids
are not very strong. This means, I am the strongest of all. Please listen. Since the intermolecular forces are not strong,
the molecules of a liquid are loosely packed. And they have empty spaces in between them. As a result, the molecules can be displaced
from their original position. Hence, when a diver jumps into water, its
molecules get displaced from their original position. And the diver is able to cut through
the water. Myopia. What causes nearsightedness? Excess staring at junk food. No. When light from an object enters our eyes. Our eye lens bends it such that the image
is formed on the retina. However, in some people, this image is formed
before the retina. Such defect is called nearsightedness or myopia. A person with myopia cannot see distant objects
clearly. But why? Wait, I will explain. To focus image of a distant object on the
retina, our eye lens becomes thin. However, in people with myopia, the lens cannot
become adequately thin. Thus, forming image before the retina and
making it difficult to see. Moreover, when eyeball is elongated more than
normal. Distance between lens and retina increases,
resulting in the formation of image before the retina. Thus, causing difficulty in seeing the distant
object. Caffeine. How does coffee keep you awake? By throwing an overnight party. No. When we perform our daily activities like
thinking and playing. A byproduct called adenosine is produced. Adenosine slows down the brain activity. But how? In our brain, there are adenosine receptors
which are perfectly moulded for this adenosine. When the adenosine binds to these receptors,
it activates them. Causing it to slow down the brain activity
and thus, making us feel sleepy. However, drinking coffee keeps us awake and
we do not feel sleepy. This is because coffee contains a drug called
caffeine which after digestion reaches our brain. Caffeine is structurally similar to adenosine. Being similar, caffeine binds to the adenosine
receptors. And thus, blocks the adenosine from binding. Hence, as adenosine does not bind, our receptors
do not slow the brain activity. As a result, we remain awake. Paper cut. Why do paper cuts hurt so much? It is because paper hates us. No. We use our fingers and hands to sense our
surroundings. Hence, they have more number of nociceptors
than any other parts of our body. Nociceptors are pain receptors that respond
to change in pressure, temperature, etc. Now, the edges of the paper are not smooth
but are rough or jagged. They are like a saw. Absolutely. Hence, sometimes when we rub our hands or
especially fingertips against the edges. It cuts them like a saw, activating the nociceptors. Now, as there are more nociceptors on our
hands, we feel more. In addition to this, the paper cut might also
have fragments of paper containing chemicals. Which may irritate the skin and thus increase
the pain. Pins and needles. Why do limbs fall asleep? Because they are tired. No. It basically happens because of nerves. Through nerves, our brain communicates with
our limbs. Nerves are so amazing. Yes. However, when we cross our legs or sleep on
an arm for very long, we apply pressure. Causing the nerve pathways and its surrounding
arteries to squeeze. Hence, the nerves do not work properly. And the arteries cannot supply required nutrients
to the nerves. As a result, the signals sent by our brain
do not reach the limb. Thus, we cannot move it. So, we say that our limb has fallen asleep. Also, in some situations, some of these squeezed
nerves stop sending signals. While some fire hyperactively. This gives us the sensation of pins and needles. What is color blindness? A color festival. No. Color blindness or color deficiency is a vision
problem. Now, our eyes have light sensitive cells called
rods and cones. Can I put ice cream on these cones? You are just unbelievable. Rods are responsible for black and white vision. They do not detect color. Whereas cones detect color. There are three types of cones. One cone perceives red light, another perceives
green and the third perceives blue. Together these cones help us to see the whole
spectrum of colors. Now, in some cases, when one or more types
of cones do not work properly. It causes color blindness. People with such deficiency have difficulty
in distinguishing between certain colors or shades. For example, in red green color blindness,
the apple tree may appear like this. How can we smell things? I do not have a nose. So, how will I know? At the back of our nose, there is a tissue
called olfactory epithelium. It is covered with mucus. This tissue has specialized neurons called
olfactory receptor neurons. There are about 40 million olfactory receptor
neurons. These neurons are chemoreceptors, that is,
neurons which detect chemicals. They have a cool name. Now, when any substance releases its smell
or odor, the odor consists of chemicals. When we breathe in, these chemicals enter
our nose. When they reach the olfactory epithelium,
the chemicals get stuck in the mucus. Causing them to activate the neurons. As a result, these activated neurons send
signals through the olfactory tract to the brain. Informes it about the smell. Why do we get sunburn? Because sun is jealous of my skin. No. Sunburn is a term for red and inflamed skin. It is caused by ultraviolet radiation present
in sunlight. Sunlight consists of three types of ultraviolet
radiation, UVA, UVB and UVC. Does it contain UVZ as well? Just listen. Our skin is made up of cells. These cells have DNA. When we are in the hot sun for very long,
the UVB radiation enters into our skin cells. And starts to damage the DNA. DNA damage can lead to cancer. Thus, to reduce the risk of cancer, the damaged
skin cells kill themselves. This programmed cell death is called apoptosis. Apoptosis activates the immune response. As a result, the blood flow increases to that
area to heal the skin. This leads to red and inflamed skin which
we call as sunburn. How do bees make honey? No idea. To make honey, the worker honeybee sucks nectar
from flowers. And stores it in its honey stomach. Once the worker bee returns to the hive. It vomits the nectar into a processor honeybee’s
mouth. In processor bee’s mouth and stomach, an enzyme
called invertase is added to the nectar. Invertase breaks some nectar into simple sugars
like glucose and fructose. Then, it vomits the partially converted nectar
into another processor bee’s mouth. Who also adds more invertase, helping breakdown
more nectar. This process goes on until most of the nectar
is converted into simple sugars. Then the mixture of simple sugars is stored
in the honeycomb. At this point, the mixture is still watery. Hence, the bees flap their wings which evaporates
water. And thickens the mixture to eventually form
honey. Why does our stomach growl? Because there are bears in our stomach. No. Growling sound is produced mostly due to movement
of gas in the digestive tract. Especially in the intestines. Now gas can either enter or be produced in
the intestines. But how? When we eat food very quickly, sometimes we
swallow gas such as air along with food. Besides this, bacteria in our intestines also
produce gases. Now during digestion, the muscles of our intestines
contract in order to push food ahead. However, gases also get pushed along with
food. Now, as our intestines are hollow tubes, such
movement of gases produces growling sounds. Besides this, hunger increases growling. This is because when we are hungry, our digestive
system starts preparing for next meal. Hence, it clears the remains of last meal. Causing more muscle contraction, thus producing
more growling sounds. Why pop rocks pop? Because they have springs in their legs. No. Pop rocks are tiny candy crystals. Candies are usually made using sugar, water,
corn syrup, various flavorings, etc. Initially, all these ingredients are mixed
together. The resulting solution is heated until most
of the water boils off. And we are left with a thick sticky syrup. Usually, this syrup is poured in moulds and
allowed to cool and harden to make candies. However, to make pop rocks, highly pressurized
carbon dioxide gas is added to the syrup. And then, it is cooled to subsequently form
a hard candy. This results in the formation of small bubbles
of pressurized carbon dioxide trapped inside candy. Now, when we put this candy in our mouth,
our saliva dissolves the candy. As a result, the highly pressurized carbon
dioxide escapes from the bubbles with a pop. How do nails grow? A nail consists of many different parts. The visible part of the nail is called nail
plate. Nail plate lies on the nail bed. Can I sleep on that bed? Just listen. Matrix is the area where nail growth originates. It lies below the skin. Matrix has specialized cells which keep dividing
and creating nail cells. The nail cells grow and produce a hard protein
called keratin. Then, these keratin filled cells are pushed
forward as more new cells form behind them. Eventually, the keratin filled cells die and
flatten to form the nail plate. The hard keratin in these dead cells gives
strength to the nail and makes it hard. But what is the use of these nails? Nails protect our finger tips. Moreover, by observing the condition of our
nails, doctors can get clues about our overall health. Why do our fingers get wrinkly? Because they want to look like raisins. No. A popular research suggests that wrinkly fingers
are a reaction of our nervous system. When our fingers are in water for a long time. Our nervous system constricts the blood vessels
present in deeper layers of skin. This in turn causes the deeper layers to shrink
or contract. But as the topmost layer does not shrink,
it becomes loose. Thus, forming small folds or wrinkles. But why does this happen? Scientists suggest that this could be an evolutionary
adaptation. Wrinkly fingers help in getting a better grip
to pick up wet objects. Preventing them from slipping from our hands. Even our feet get wrinkly, helping us to walk
in water without slipping.

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