UN Presidential Visit – 6th August 2019


The President of the United Nations General
Assembly. Please sit. Your Excellency,
Lords, Ladies and Gentlemen, Deputy Lord Lieutenant of the County, Mayor, Mayoress, distinguished guests and to the 11 million who are listening to this live
streamed including our Alumni, some 20,000 Alumni who represent a hundred
and ninety nations, Your Excellency. 190 nations no less are represented by our
student body at this remarkable at university and we are so honored to have
you with us and today can I just say that there are seats over here for those
who would like to have a seat today is a remarkable day just over five
hours ago and 74 years a b-29 bomber left the Tinian islands called Enola Gay
with the destination of the Japanese town of Hiroshima
to Stover two hours ago it dropped what was the first nuclear
bomb to be dropped in warfare and that event alone happening on this day
Hiroshima day six of August explains and validates the work of the UN which is
never more important than it is now and the historic mission of this University
the University of Buckingham in setting up the country’s first UN Centre in
Britain and we intend to take the study of the UN enormous Li seriously and to
galvanize the study of the UN and looking at how it will evolve your
excellency and how it will develop in the years to come and work with similar
bodies internationally so that we can be sure that the UN will have a good
century up ahead because uniquely uniquely the UN has that role in
ensuring not just peace but also prosperity for the world as we go
forward so to have you here today on this historic day historic day for this
university historic day for the country as we are on the verge of her
precipitous departure from a body that has given this country stability and
prosperity for the last 40 years and historic for the world we are very proud
to have you here so I’m going to read a message from the chair of the UN Central
University of Buckingham and that is Lord malloch-brown and he as you your
excellency know very well but others may not was a former UN deputy secretary
general and chief administrator of the UN
and we’re very proud that he is the chair of our UN Centre so he says dear
Madam President I want to congratulate and thank you on being present at
today’s opening of the Center for un studies at the University of Buckingham
it is he says a matter of great pride to all in the UK who have been lucky enough
to serve in the UN to hear this center is being opened at this time the UN
appears more indispensable than ever but also more challenged at the same time
the UK a UN founder and a permanent member of the Security Council has its
own crisis of direction the UN Center at the University will examine the
importance of multilateral approaches to shared global concerns of security human
rights sustainable development as well as emerging new threats including
climate change cybersecurity the challenges of automation and artificial
intelligence and the threats but the opportunities that they pose to
employment into wider society in so doing the center will make the case for
an effective un as well as help Britain recover a sense of its own role and
destiny in contributing to making the world a better and a safe place
your excellency he says we are very honoured very honored indeed to have you
with us today best wishes mark now your excellency
many will know but perhaps not all how very distinguished and therefore how
very fortunate we are to have you with us today say forgive me if you already
know there but let me just say that you are the
president as we know of the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly you are the
first woman from Latin America to hold this position and only and incredibly
only the fourth woman to do so with over 20 years of experience in peace and
security human rights sustainable development and
environmental issues you have made a major contribution to world peace you’ll
work in Ecuador twice as Minister for foreign affairs for Ecuador as Minister
for defence and Minister coordinating natural and cultural heritage you have
served your own country with distinction as you did as Ecuador’s permanent
representative to the UN in New York and in Geneva you also lesser-known perhaps
a distinguished published poet and a very celebrated humanitarian we are very
very honored to have you with us I’m now going to call on one of our own
students we have her Excellency met some of our international students
representing the 80 or so different countries that we have at the university
at the moment she met several of them outside from different parts of the
world and now we’re going to have malabo gamma DZ who is going to come up and say
a few words for you if she doesn’t say herself maybe she’s written it since
she’s looking at me saying I’ve said that but she is a second year psychology
student just in case she doesn’t Malibu go welcome to the stage in my culture
your name educates your soul and the universe about who you are and who you
are destined to be my name is Malibu Hamoudi say and my name means thanks and
gratitude and so today like many other days I stand in gratitude of what my
life has been what it currently is and what it represents each of us here today
represents things we are willing to stand and speak up for and often what we
represents reflects where we are from our memories and if not a fraction then
our entire being i represent what my life has been and that is struggle and
loss i have had to fight for parent to love and i’ve had to fight for my
education my father disowned me when i was fifteen and stopped paying for my
school fees I represent my past and I speak on it because we don’t survive
wars only to hide them I represent what my life is now and that
is liberation and accessibility I was awarded a bursary to complete high
school and currently I’m the first recipient of the University of
Buckingham scholarship the decision for an educational institution to
unhesitatingly consider me consider me as worthy of the chance to learn and
have access to the world is the biggest validation I needed to start visualizing
myself and my future as a young woman pursuing world change through education
today I’m particularly grateful for what my life will be although I’m uncertain
today I’ve seen a glimpse of what it will be as I’ve been giving the honor to
introduce to you a woman who represents what I envision not only for myself but
for women and for my country South Africa a woman through which we are able
to see the world as a multilateral space that belongs to those in it
a woman who represents a world that facilitates the growth and the
empowerment of youth and women a world that is home to individuals that are
freely committed to their dreams wherever they may be located a woman who
represents a world that is real and not just policy a woman through which I know
are more than capable and able to change the South African narrative where youth
have had to pay for bad governance and domestic dysfunction by losing out on
higher education the first woman ever to be from and represent Latin America and
the Caribbean and the fourth woman in the United Nations to preside over the
General Assembly for those watching on the livestream you have the opportunity
to submit questions to the president of the General Assembly on the University
Twitter and Instagram accounts at Union of Buckingham it is my great and
personal honor to introduce to you Her Excellency Maria Fernanda Espinosa
president of the United Nations General Assembly well good morning and thank you very
very much for this very warm welcome thank you and thank you all for having
me here this morning I’m extremely humbled by all this generous words and
sometimes cities it is a challenge to express emotion in a foreign language I
have to I have to be very honest with you but but thank you thank you I have
felt since the very moment I entered this building the warmth of people of
students and also this flavor of internationalism in this house so thank
you honorable Milly Soames deputy Lord
Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire councillor Mark Hall mayor of Buckingham and mayor
s as well Sir Anthony Selden vice-chancellor of the University of
Buckingham distinguished guests dear students ladies and gentlemen thank you
so much sir Anthony for the kind invitation and thank you Molly BOGO for
your words of introduction I was deeply deeply touched it is such a pleasure to
join you all this morning and to learn more about this new center for the
United Nations Studies and it is really music to my ears to see that there is
such a center the first as I understand in the UK so the university deserves to
be commended for that excellent brilliant idea and
the UN is for perhaps more than ever you reminded us that today it is the 74th
anniversary of other Hiroshima bombing and that reminds us that we do need a
space for dialogue for world solidarity for greater cooperation and we need two
spaces to think and reflect and build new ideas to strengthen our multilateral
system and the United Nations so as we move through this turbulent period for
the world I cannot think of a better time to set up an institution devoted to
diplomacy to conflict resolution and international organizations and I am
confident that through your research and through students like Malibu go you will
help to shape global discussions I want to begin this morning by looking at the
conference of crises facing the world I will outline for tipping points
planetary economic social and political that the face is worth as faith that the
world is facing today and I will conclude with some thoughts on how to
address them turning first to the challenges we face earlier this year the
UN’s global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystems was released
one of the press headlines simply read we are in trouble
we are in trouble based on more than 15,000 academic studies the report
warned that nearly 1 million animal and plant species are at risk of extinction
bee colonies are collapsing coral reefs are dying rainforests like the Amazon
are drying into savannas the ecosystems on which our lives and livelihoods
depend are deteriorating rapidly and we are to blame humans are to blame human
activity has significantly altered a staggering three-quarters of all land
and two-thirds of our marine environments plastic pollution one of my
priority issues this year has increased tenfold since 1980 contributing to over
400 ocean dead zones 13 million tons of plastic go to the ocean every year this
alone is a crisis of epic proportions but it is only one of the pressing
challenges we face the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has warned that
we have just 11 years to limit global temperature rise to 1 point point 5
degrees and avoid the worst impacts of climate change this will require us to
reach peak carbon next year according to the year climate action tracker current
pledges under the Paris agreement put us on course for 2.4 to 3 point 8 degree
rise and a future of widespread poverty water scarcity hunger displacement and
conflict so we need to go beyond the Paris agreement we urgently need to
increase our ambition we urgently need to unlock two benefits of climate smart
growth which the global Commission on the economy and climate estimates could
be as much as 26 trillion dollars in the next decade
if we grow smartly if we have green economies at work at the same time we
need to address long-standing challenges one in ten of us lives in extreme
poverty one in ten one in three of us does not have safe drinking water at
least half the global population lacks essential health services and it is
still the case that if you are a woman an older person a person with
disabilities or from a rural minority of you are an indigenous person you are
more likely to be disadvantaged other issues too are emerging that require
urgent attention rapidly changing communication platforms for instance
they offer great potential as we know in areas from delivery of services to
citizen empowerment as well as challenges in terms of privacy
disinformation and hate speech to name just a few
digitization automation also offer benefits in terms of productivity job
creation and innovation but they too come with risks for instance as many as
two-thirds of jobs in developing countries could be lost to robots in the
coming years and this is not science fiction it is reality we must have
policies in place to ensure that these developments yield a net gain for
society for humans for the economy and not the contrary and then there are the
sweeping big-picture trends between now and 2030 the deadline for achieving the
Sustainable Development Goals half of the global population will be under 30
but also by 2050 however people over 60 will overtake youth
we need to start preparing our social systems for these changes and as we
grapple with the current displacement crisis we need of nearly 70 million
people across the world we must plan to support even greater numbers uprooted by
climate change conflict and instability so there are 70 million refugees around
the world 80% are hosted by developing countries finally we must weather
transitions in the global political landscape power is mutating it now
encompasses factors such as energy security cyber capability information
and innovation alongside traditionally a traditional military and economic livers
and global power is shifting the world is becoming more multipolar but also
more polarized dear friends ladies and gentlemen this is a huge agenda for the
international community as you may see for policy makers it can feel
overwhelming and I say these as someone who has served as foreign minister and
defence minister how can we prioritize when everything is so urgent one
approach that could help is to focus on tipping points not only the areas where
we are close to a point of no return but also the actions that could help tip the
scale back in our favor there are four I want to set out today
the first of course is climate change we know we face a hard deadline on carbon
emissions and we know in broad terms that we need to do so but there are many
pathways pathways to zero carbon
we are unlikely to have definitive answers on which to prioritize in the
required time frame our best bet therefore is to focus on the most
transformative scalable steps we can take immediately to tip the scale we
have to work together to become carbon neutral societies
well the European Union has set up this ambitious target of carbon neutrality
and by 2050 but we can do even better than that there are some countries that
have United they’re called the greater ambition countries as I understand 18
countries have signed to that pledge and it this has been led by at the president
Austria by the way the second is economic global growth is flowing marker
markets are volatile in many countries deficits remain too high to stabilize
the action taken during the last financial crisis has not been enough and
we know and there is lingering public resentment that the banks were saved at
the expense of workers and here perhaps also a very important piece of
information to achieve the 2030 agenda and the sustainable development goals we
have to create 600 million new jobs by 2030 600 million new jobs most of these
jobs are for the younger generations for young people and this is a major
macroeconomic challenge and we need to work together with the private sector
with academia with government to make sure that not only we create the 600
million jobs but quality jobs dignity for people because you know work and
jobs cannot be seen as Merkin SIA as a sorry about um
merchandise as a merchandise it is a right decent work is a right so the
wholesale transformation we need as well in economic policy and government and
governance is challenging to pursue politically but we cannot run away from
making the hard choices we need to make our gently in parallel we must do more
to promote evidence-based action we can do more to ensure that our international
financial institutions create a better safety net banks are banks but I think
that the very concept of profit needs to change what is profit if we are
destroying the planet what is profit where we are taking away the dignity of
people what is profit if we have new forms of slavery in child labor what is
profit we need to rethink the very concept of profit the third tipping
point is the fraying of the social contract as the gains we have made over
the past decades are slowing even reversing moreover these gains were
never shared equally despite prolonged periods of growth who
elf has not trickled down and we know inequality is deepening it is sobering
thing for example that just 26 persons 26 people owned as much as 3.8 billion
who make up the poorer half of humanity only 26 persons
governments are less able to provide a credible guarantee to their citizens
today issues that were traditionally domestic such as what I just mentioned
job creation for instance in increasingly have a global I met a
dimension and require greater global cooperation which brings me to the my
last tipping point the health of our multilateral system these trends and
challenges have produced a crisis of confidence in governments and
institutions justified concerns about unchecked globalization have mutated
into a backlash against the very principles that give power to the people
such as human rights gender equality in social justice and against institutions
that promote them we are seeing a rise of nationalist sentiment extremism
unilateral approaches and attacks on international laws and norms this is
creating a very difficult environment for the decisions we need to take in the
coming months and years just when we need multilateralism more than ever
global cooperation is being questioned even undermined in some quarters we know
from past painful experience that erosion of the social contract and
erosion of international cooperation and we know leads leads to war and we know
that this time war could wipe us out through nuclear weapons but also by
wasting time that should have been spent on climate change on wellbeing of people
on sustainable development and this is a you know a reminder today on the 74th
anniversary of the Hiroshima bombing so dear friends I feared that I may have
thoroughly depressed you by now but I assure you I am a stubborn optimist I
remain confident that together we can navigate the challenges we face
and these are not just words we can really do something about this
why because multilateralism works I see it happen every day at the United
Nations even in the most difficult circumstances since the creation of the
United Nations we have made great strides forward in education in
development in poverty eradication in health we have adopted human rights
treaties to eliminate discrimination against women to protect children to
empower people with disabilities we have responded to humanitarian emergencies
and supported peace in countries such as Lebanon Bosnia Liberia and Sierra Leone
we have defeated apartheid in your country and there are interesting parts
of the UN that you may not have heard of like the International Civil Aviation
Organization which looks after things like flight safety or the office for
outer space affairs which helps to ensure you have mobile data on your
phones and it’s not on my notes but the UN provides food and shelter for 90
million people every day and the UN provides 50 percent of all the vaccines
that children receive worldwide so we know we need to do more and better but
we are fit for purpose the UN is the only and the best place we have to
strengthen collective action and multilateralism that is just a snapshot
of the UN’s achievements and the range of issues
it works on and it does so on a modest budget to total spending by all parts of
the UN peace operations development agencies humanitarian programs health
and so on is about 50 billion dollars a year 50 billion
now I know that sounds like a huge amount of money but let’s put it into
context the world’s reaches man and it is a man has a net worth of three times
that amount Americans spend more on pizza every year so it is not that bad
and even at this difficult time diplomats are working together at the UN
in M a witness of that even we with major different views very polarized
positions but at the end of the day we can reach agreement in as president of
the General Assembly of our Parliament of humanity this is my job
for example the adoption last year of the compacts on refugees and on safe
orderly and regular migration show that we can still make progress even on the
hardest of issues the overwhelming majority of states recognize that
multilateralism is not a threat to sovereignty in that on the contrary it
strengthens States capacity to pursue their interests and solve problems
whilst sharing the burden costs and risks so we know multilateralism works
but where are we to direct direct our efforts we have in the 2030 agenda for
sustainable development and in the Paris agreement our blueprint to save the
world our survival kit for Humanity these
documents offer hope they offer guidance they address many of the factors feeling
dissatisfaction with the international system from material deprivation to poor
governance implementing them will do more to demonstrate to people the value
of multilateralism than any speech or campaign so we know what what to do
but how do we get there throughout this session of the General Assembly the same
answers have emerged let’s focus on the evidence let’s look at what has work
let’s identify the most transformative scaleable next steps that can tip the
scales in our favor as for when we need action clearly the answer is we need
action now we need action today as we have two crucial opportunities coming up
in September during the General Assembly’s high-level week we will have
five opportunities five summit level meetings were high I would say 160 170
heads of state and government will be in New York to attend the high-level
political forum on sustainable development the first ever SDG summit
the climate action summit that would address the need to scale up ambition on
climate change the midterm review of the Samoa pathway for small island
developing States which is extremely important especially you know looking at
the climate really the the physical climate environment not the political
climate only the high-level meeting on universal health coverage and the
high-level dialogue on financing for development we need every meeting to
count they’re all interconnected development with climate change with
financing for development with the future of small island developing States
if we don’t do not stop climate change they’re going to simply disappear as we
know so we need every every summit to count during the upcoming September
high-level week and next year in 2020 we will mark the UN’s 75th anniversary this
is a golden opportunity to galvanize commitment to multilateralism and to
change the way we do business it a chance to make the UN more effective
more transparent more accountable and more relevant to we the people’s and by
the way the team that I selected for my year’s presidency was precisely to make
the United Nations more relevant tour so dear friends ladies and gentlemen that
has been the overarching theme as I mentioned of my presidency this year to
make the UN relevant for all and this is my final point after why what how and
when there is who who is going to do all this and the answer to that is you you
all we hear time and again that governments alone cannot achieve the
transformation we need to our societies and economies that we need civil society
business academia Parliament’s cities and youth to take forward sustainable
development and climate action we need to do much more to open up the UN to
build stronger partnerships and engage stakeholders meaningfully in
decision-making and in and in implementation on the ground so as you
can see there is much work for the Center for un studies much work to be
done a lot of homework here I wish you all the best as you embark on this
exciting journey I congratulate you on being pioneers in founding the first
institution of this kind in the UK and I look forward to hearing your thoughts
and questions of course thank you very very much again for your kind attention and now thank you for those magnificent
words we’ve now got one of our alumni ethically AUSA bogan who is going to say
a few words from the University thank you sir could we please give her
excellency madam president Maria Fernanda Espinosa another round of
applause please my name is Eric Weiner Sheboygan I’m
Nigerian an alumnus of the University of Buckingham
I’m also principal partner in my law firm in Lagos and the candidate and it
just concluded general elections in Nigeria I’m pleased to be here and I
would like to thank the vice-chancellor Sir Anthony Sultan for this opportunity
and also I’d like to thank Alastair Lomax and Matsu occur and Steve and Tino
thank you very much when I was told to give this speech the first thing I had a
little bit octants why because today is my wife’s birthday
so I was fun between meeting high excellency for the first time or
spending it with my wife now been the best of best friends
she obliged me to come down to Buckingham with me to attend this event
so please I would appreciate if you give a round of applause
and also happy girl we’re always proud to say we didn’t only get our
certificate through both lawyers from the University of Buckingham but we also
got the foundation of our marriage certificate here as well because we both
met here so it’s it’s been it’s been a good journey haven’t listened to madam
president speech I am optimistic about the approach that the UN General
Assembly would have towards Mata Marriott sealed our tourism I’m also
pleased to see that there’s so much passion and quality and the leadership
there but I would not leave without having my comment as well because
climate change is something that affects all of us even in places we do not know
my constituency which is a jab or day in Oakland State Nigeria was recently
flooded for over 48 hours we had 12 hours of rain and the towns was on the
water for 48 hours I cannot see how many people lost their lives as we speak but
I know a lot was lost in that experience and what we’ve also seen especially in
Niger as a whole has been an exodus of herdsmen coming from the Sahel region
down south displacing farmers and destroying crops and this is also as a
result of climate change because it’s pushing them from their natural habitat
and bringing them down itself and what this also has done is young young
farmers in my constituency are then forced to look for employment elsewhere
majority of them then embarked on a torturous journey through Libya looking
for greener pastures in Europe and what we then find as a result of that is
large slave camps in Libya torture rape these are things that the African youth
experienced as we speak I’m pleased to have this opportunity to address Madam
President and my comment on my question before the floor is opened for questions
on behalf of the African youth is the Libyan question what what what steps
would the United Nations General Assembly under the administration take
to help the youths that trapped in silly camps across northern Africa I think you
all once more and before I go or before I invite Madam President and open the
floor for questions I would like to thank Santana Walden once more and
please do have a pleasant day thank you very much thank you very very much you can leave
for that and we do have just over ten minutes for questions your excellency so
do you want to perhaps make any comment there on that question about the the
youth there and can I ask you to use the microphone here but the blue one I don’t
think that’s a political statement and also I’ve got some very frightening
instructions to suggest you have to be five centimeters away not six nor four
but put five apparently so just a quick comment and then we’ll come over to the
floor to some questions well first of all thank you very much I really
appreciate you coming and this very special day of your wife’s birthday so
happy birthday to your wife and you know you asked a very serious question
because it is not only about Libya I think it is about the world one of my
priorities this year has been youth peace and security and basically what we
are what we have done this year is to make sure that young people have are
transformed not into problems to be addressed but into actors in peacemakers
peace be leaders mediators and I think that the answer is it’s easy to say
difficult to do but the answer is more quality education and greater action to
combat poverty and inequality because you know young people with the proper
proper education proper opportunities you know they they have everything they
need to be you know enjoying of societies and this happens about
everywhere unfortunately I have been in Africa many times and in some areas of
Africa where there is stigmatization of of young people and that we have to be
very careful and associate young people we danger with extremism in and I think
it is not that is only the same symptom but the root causes are deeper I think
that if we do a collective effort to deliver on the sustainable development
goals we we are going to really be working on those you know perhaps the
most the wiser deterrence mechanism that we can have I’ve worked very closely
with young people this year especially on conflict areas and conflict
situations and regarding your very specific question on Libya as you know
the UN is making every effort for an a political diplomatic outlet to the
Libyan crisis unfortunately and this is public they are extra regional actors in
the Libyan conflict as well so we need to come together and to use the the
strongest tool we have in hand which is dialogue which is which is at diplomatic
wisdom there is no conflict around the world that is going to have a military
solution we do need we do need diplomatic solutions we need greater
dialogue greater cooperation and the Libyan case which is a very sad case
it’s not the exception we do we are doing our best to make sure that this
dialogue is resumed we have been working hard on that unfortunately the current
situation in Libya it is a very tense difficult situation but we
are working on it thank you very much indeed and this question here I’m going
to give your name yes my name is Susanne Claxton your excellency you’ve been
talking about the relevance of the General Assembly and I would like to ask
you how you view the continuing relevance of the Security Council in the
face of the ongoing paralysis in the face of humanitarian crises all over the
world especially in the last 10 to 20 years and whether there is going to be
an increased need for the application of the Uniting for peace resolution in
order to solve these problems okay thank you very much and can have a next
question I just would get the microphone all that there’s a gentleman over here a
young gentleman with a beard and a and a tie
thank you and then again to the gentleman behind you afterwards yeah
okay okay don’t put put the question yep my name is IO delay I’m one of the
students of the United Nations so it’s a student here on the course yeah what is the partnership yeah between the
United Nations the relationship team the Iran and region such as to ensure that that gets the economic
development cases so just keeping the question very short because there’s a
problem with the audibility can you just can use ask the question very succinctly
okay yeah so what relationship does the United Nations have with regional
regional organizations to ensure development and security for developing
countries on down list of areas and it’s gentleman behind you has a question and
as yes despite them accurate many who consider the United Stated nation with
no real power due to two principal factors the first is the veto which is
wielded by the members of the permanent secure or see any likelihood that that
veto will be abolished and will be a more equitable voting system amongst the
United Nations member states perhaps based on population and the second
factor is a more complicated one and that is the fact that the United States
which is the largest contributor to the UN budget actually does not believe in
international organizations of any kind and does not cede any sovereignty to
international organizations is that true of the US or true of the current
president it has generally been true of the United States throughout the history
of the United Nations okay and then just finally they said I have to the last
question lady in red I’m sorry the lady in red had a hand up first and and what
might have to make this the last question I posed upon was thank you very
much it’s been a pleasure to hear for me and your experience
I’m also current one of the first students for the United Nations so we’re
a team across here my question is regarding East Africa in itself the
region has had trouble emphasis with different tribes and clan members my
question is what can the United Nation do to support a country called
Somaliland to be recognized in the international right and I will take you
very much I will take the good question from the lady
the with the pink top on and recognizing this is asking a lot from guests your
excellence I thank you very much for your inspiring talk dr. Hajra from
University of Oxford I was really interested in the climate change point
you sort of picked out the four tipping points that you think could be done and
I just wondered have you got similar tipping points in terms of actions for
their developing countries because right now it does look as if the big countries
can just pull out of these agreements and so I think in terms of solving it
the developing countries are almost on their own and they need to do something
do you have any sort of suggestions and what would be tipping point actions for
countries that are really poor not very powerful thank you thank you very nice
to that question from Oxford there who do great work with the UN international
relations can I just say see you keep to the timetable you have five questions
and I hesitate to say it to somebody who is the leader as you said of the world’s
Parliament but tensing myself up can I just say you have slightly less than
five minutes if we keep to the timetable all excellent questions I have to say
but perhaps I can just merge a few of them there were several questions
regarding the structure of the UN and how the different main bodies of the UN
relate to each other meaning the relationship between Security Council
General Assembly Economic and Social Council and International Court of
Justice I mean this is these are the main bodies principle organs of the
United Nations and we are doing a big effort to work
with a greater coordination to deliver in a coherent manner and concretely the
question about Security Council and United for peace resolution I think that
the United for peace resolution is being used more and more
my also my sense is that it’s going to be used even more so because it is
public and well known that Security Council has had difficulties in reaching
consensus on the most fundamental on the most fundamental issues this leads me to
the question about the veto power of the p5 of the five permanent members of the
Security Council and that’s how we drafted the Charter and had to to
rethink the veto right of the permanent five members then we need to change the
founding charter of the UN which is not an easy task we have been in the process
of reforming the Security Council for more than 25 years the reform of the
Security Council is under under the responsibility of the General Assembly
we have a mandate to reform the Security Council from 10 years ago and we
continue to discuss this is really not an easy an easy task Security Council
reform has been a very contentious divisive process but not an impossible
process just this year we had a rollover resolution to continue the debate and
the discussion as you may understand it is a very difficult issue difficulty is
not impossibility but the process continues and we hope that we reach you
know it will go a summer there is great support for Security Council reform the
majority of member states are in favor of reform but any reform that comes out
of this of the General Assembly has to be endorsed by the permanent five so not
easy but at the same time and perhaps that would allow me to go into the
remaining questions the issue of the difficulties of the
decision-making bodies of the UN cannot you know bring us to paralysis in its we
cannot just stop working because of that the most democratic representative
universal body of the United Nations is the General Assembly is the Parliament
of humanity and we are also making sure that we improve our working methods
there is a process that is called the revitalization of the generalism and I
have put a lot of effort making sure that member states take decisions to
improve the way we deliver I think that the key is to come back to the founding
principles of the Charter and to look at the three pillars of the United Nations
the peace and security pillar which is mainly the responsibility of the
Security Council but the the development pillar and the human rights peeler and
we have to make sure that they are interconnected you the United Nations is
also undergoing not only a Security Council reform process which is going to
take a long time unfortunately we are reinventing the and improving the
working methods of the General Assembly through the revitalization process and
we are undergoing a major reform internally within our Secretariat which
is our executive arm three major reform processes within the Secretariat a
management reform to make sure that the organization is more transparent more
accountable more efficient less bureaucratic a peace and security reform
basically looking at the principle of sustaining peace and a preventive
approach to conflict and third a reform on our developing development system to
gear the whole architecture towards the implementation of the sustainable
development goals and the 2030 agenda there is no magic formula the current
political environment is tough you mentioned the issue of the main donor in
our host country but I am optimistic why because we are seeing that the main
agreements internationally are being owned owned and implemented by
individual states in the United States and by cities for example there is a
network I think of 400 or 500 cities in the
United States that are implementing the Paris agreement on climate change so
things are happening and I think that the worst the worst attitude is to say
you know it’s paralysis is indifference and I really like this phrase that says
that the opposite of love is not hate but indifference and we have to be
engaged in we have to continue working your question about in climate change
what is what are what is the recipe for the developing world because it is tough
and the costs of climate change are tougher on the developing economies and
the small island developing states on the Latin landlocked countries so
climate change is the one thing perhaps we where we need to apply the principle
of common but differentiated responsibilities we do have a collective
responsibility but we do know also at the ecological footprint of the
industrialized countries so basically we need three issues to happen to escalate
ambition on mitigation to reduce emissions and the onestart
are responsible for the the greater emissions number two is to have the
financial resources to unlock the resources to be invested in green
economies and number three is technology tramps transfer and low carbon
technologies to be transferred to the developing countries and this is this is
still an unresolved issue and I’m very confident that the climate summit in
September is going to provide these answers but I have also to say
one of the you know when you see the most ambitious and diseased the National
determined contributions the most ambitious plans for carbon neutrality
come from developing countries most of the time so we do need you know to put
forward this idea of common but differentiated responsibilities on
climate change so thank you and I hope I have captured and we by laterally we
will talk about the role of regional organizations that it very important and
I think the issue of Somaliland okay thank you so we have we have come
to the end the end of this session but the beginning of a new world in which
this Center will help transform the lives of young people and people of all
ages and all nationalities it seems to me that the job of the university
uniquely is to combat ignorant to combat indifference to combat the retreat that
we see today in to populism and internationalism and in to nationalism
with leaders who whip up nationalist fervor for their own courses it seems
that the need for internationalism for support for care for understanding these
global issues that you have articulated so wonderfully well has never been
greater and this University it doesn’t receive gifts of 150 million
pounds like Oxford we we do have to and I mean that I mean I say that I wish
that we did but we did but that work is our work is extraordinarily valuable and
if our Center does not receive support it simply will perish
we need that support we need support we need the active interest we intend to
work very closely with the United Nations an institution that all my life
all my life I have deeply admired for many many reasons and so I’m very proud
to be leading this initiative here we’re working with research we are running
undergraduate postgraduate programs we’re linking together with other
universities and institutions were linking with Model United Nations which
is doing so much to educate young people about the need for international
cooperation I’d like to conclude by just thanking here professor Nick Reese and
dr. Paul Graham in the front row Alistair Lomax leave kawar Bev Kelly
mark Sedin at the UN you know mark your excellency and Matsuoka and her team as
well as adequately and malabo go for their wonderful addresses from this
platform I’d like to thank all of you for coming and being here today on this
remarkable and historic day I but I know everybody including I hope the 11
million who are viewing all the words that were spoken at five centimeters
from these various microphones will join me in saying that your words were we’re
moving were powerful were deeply felt and were pertinent if we are to have a
better 21st century than the 20th century was for all the glories that the
20th century had so your excellency Maria Fernanda Espinosa on behalf of all
of us we are profoundly and deeply and forever grateful and in your debt thank
you you

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