Scientists are Eliminating the Kilogram! So, What Happens Next?


In the name of the
kilo, and of the mole, and of the holy
meter, I welcome you. Ampere be with you. And with your second. We are here, today, to
lay to rest the kilogram. Ashes to ashes, dust to dust. And I have questions. Hey there, mass
drivers and nerd fam. Welcome to Uno Dos of Trace. This week, the kilogram
is weighing on my mind, because it has amassed
quite a bit of news. According to Science Magazine,
next week at the 26th General Conference On
Weights and Measures, they’re going to retire Le
Grand K, the name for the weight of platinum and
iridium alloy sitting at the Bureau of Weights and
Measures outside of Paris. This is a big deal. The kilogram is changing. So questions, go. Why does this matter? How do we get these
measurements, anyway? What is going to happen
when do this to kilogram? How do we know what the
kilogram is in the first place? Did I just get fatter? How are we going to
teach measurements? Should you even care about this? And other questions, as well. So let’s break this down. This matters. OK, that’s the last one. I promise. Because some things need to
know their mass and their weight very specifically, at
standard mass and a set temperature at one place,
and that was the deal. If everyone had their own kilo
in every different country, then there was no consistency. I mean, technically,
everybody does, but they all compare back to this one. Even gravity isn’t
exactly consistent, depending on where you are. If you’re on top of a
mountain made of lead, there’s more gravity than
at the bottom of the ocean. That’s just how gravity works. But as we learned more
about our universe, we found that these physical
objects, bars and chunks of metal, they were too flimsy. Even at a constant
temperature, in Paris, behind three locked jars, Le
Grand K was changing in mass. We just can’t have nice things. But how can we know what a
kilo is without the kilo? Simple. Take it off the physical plane. Change the units
from physical objects to reflections of our
understanding of the universe. And that’s exactly what
they’re going to do. This physical kilo is the last
one on the chopping block. So let me back up for a second,
explain how we got here. Units of measure have
been around forever. For as long as we’ve interacted,
and bartered, and made deals, we’ve had units of measure. And everybody used
different ones. We got the metric system
because we decided to pick one. All of humanity, except Myanmar,
the United States, and Liberia, use the metric, or SI, system. But before that,
there were literally thousands of ways
to measure things. Different cities, and
countries, and regions all had their own units of measure. At one time, the King of England
decreed that an inch was three dried barley corns. 1,000 years before that, the
Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne declared his foot
was the standard. And way before that, the
Egyptians used the distance from the elbow to the fingertip,
and they called it a cubit. But even then, they realized
that not everybody’s arm is the same length. So they had to go
get a granite block, and they carved it and made
a cubit out of that and all. So many units. In 1793, while the French
were revolutioning, they decided to build some
physical units of their own. The meter and the kilogram. The meter was adopted as
1/10,000,000th the distance from the Earth’s
equator to the pole, measured on a meridian
through Paris. They cast some platinum
bars of it, and then, voila. That is the meter, period. No question. Human comparison not needed. The kilogram was a liter
of water, at freezing. Not the best but, still,
I guess, that’s pretty OK. Over time, as
we’ve gotten better at measuring our universe,
we’ve refined these standards. And eventually, we
realized, no matter what the standards were made
out of, it wouldn’t be perfect. That bar of metal isn’t going
to be perfect and pristine forever. So in 1983, we redefined the
meter to be how far light travels in one 1/
299,792,458th of a second. I mean, actually,
the speed of light was defined as exactly
299,792,458 meters per second, meaning that the meter was a
fraction of the speed of light. And you get it. This happened again, and
again, with each unit in the SI system. Temperature isn’t
defined by water, but by Boltzmann’s constant,
a relation of temperature and energy. Amps are defined by the
charge of an electron. Length is defined by the
speed of light, and so on. And so now, the kilo,
too, will evolve, becoming a metaphysical constant. The equivalent
mass of the energy of a photon, given its frequency
via the Planck Constant. I don’t know why I slipped
into an accent there, but it doesn’t matter. This is really complicated. It requires a lot
of high level math, so how do we teach
this to kids, right? Easy. Tell them this is
the meter, done. They’re kids. I know what some of you
might be thinking, too. This is dumb. Feet are better. I know a foot. It’s my foot. If you’re comforted by the
foot being human based, let me break it to you. It ain’t. The foot has nothing to do with
humans, except the word, foot. One foot is not a human foot. Has nothing to do with
the King of England, has nothing to do with
Emperor Charlemagne. It’s exactly 0.348 meters. No podiatry involved whatsoever. So what’s going to happen then? We redefine the
kilogram and some people are going to get heavier
and some people are going to get lighter, or what? Nothing is going to happen. The kilo is going to be
exactly accurate, all the time, because the laws of the
universe are unchanging. Plus, scientists who
need this accuracy can be as precise
as possible using math, plus, a universal
constant that doesn’t change. Almost like they can whip up
a metaphysical version of Le Grand K in their lab, anytime
they want, to make sure their calculations are perfect. Honestly, this is a big deal. But what it really
says to me is we in the US should just convert
to metric already, come on! We’re basically using a crappy
reskinned version of it, anyway. No more research is needed here. That’s not true. That’s not true. We can always add more decimals,
on the end, can’t we, nerd fam? Come on. Always research is
more is needed is more. Thanks so much for watching
this video, everyone. If you have standards,
why don’t you just go ahead and like
and share and comment. I respond to all my comments. And subscribe. There’s a button right there. So easy to use, and
it tells YouTube that you care about this video. Love you, nerd fam. I will see you next week. La Croix, if only I
had one meter of it. The units from physical obl– obl– ha. That is so stupid. I feel like Sybill Trelawney.

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