Modern Day Slavery – Full Episode

Human trafficking is [one] of the fastest growing criminal industries representing over 30 billion dollars in illegal trade per year at any given time the [united] nations estimates more than 2.4 million people hailing from 136 Different Countries are being trafficked around [the] world Many end up in the sex trade Some end up in forced labor essentially Modern slavery The idea that’s so long after the emancipation proclamation We should still be tolerating this strikes me as a completely unacceptable Although it is undeniably a global phenomenon the us as one of the world’s human trafficking importers [bares] a special responsibility to combat this practice our Obligation now is to find it where it exists and finally extinguish it The us and the International community have adopted various treaties and laws to prevent trafficking, but will it be enough? Modern-day slavery next on great decisions They’re often hidden in plain sight Human beings have been trafficked for use as forced labor prostitutes or even for the removal of their organs when we say Human trafficking, we’re talking about a problem of forced labor That’s plaguing tens of millions of people And it’s a more serious problem in terms of absolute numbers than any other time in human history you [would] be amazed how often you have seen it, but that’s the reality is that Until you start looking for it it just looks like somebody who’s at work in a factory or [in] a mine or on a farm How would you know if you don’t know what to look for? It’s just somebody at work the United States considers the term human trafficking to be an umbrella term That stands for all of the activities involved in reducing someone – or holding them in a condition of compelled service As President Obama says really what we’re talking [about] is modern slavery with more than [twenty] million victims of human trafficking around the world Think about that more than more than 20 million We’ve got a lot more to do it’s a result of Enormous income inequalities. It’s a result of prejudice and gender discrimination But it’s also a result of enormous corruption that Drains countries of resources everybody potential become a victim of human [trafficking] and Everybody also potential become a trafficker Human trafficking is happened around or not only in the Third World where Africa [filip] in Mexico, but it happened in United State in our own backyard It happens to men and women Adults and children they are abducted coerced or deceived by traffickers into a life of exploitation that’s difficult to escape a So-called labor recruiter will come into rural Villages and Tell men well we have a great job for you in one of the gulf states, or they’ll tell a girl [we] have a great job for you in Katmandu or along the Chinese border in a hotel or a restaurant? But I need to hold on to your passport [before] we get there of course all this is a trap they promise them things We’re going to give you work. You can work as a in a hotel as a maid [or] you can work in [several] houses that domestic servant and once they get there often their Papers their documents are taken and then they’re coerced [in] working for the trafficker or his associates. [I] was a general manager in the biggest Bank in Indonesia [I] lost my job because of the economic balance fell out I couldn’t work and I apply a job in the Newspaper the advertisement it was in the newspaper. I [cut] late if you [meet] people [work] Well, I came to the united state they didn’t put me in the job that they over they put me in the sex business the [us] European Union, the United nations and a host of international organizations are working to combat the trade that nets the traffickers an estimated fifty billion dollars a year and the figures get worse forced labor another term for slavery Involves an estimated twenty point nine million people some of whom were trafficked according to the international [labour] [organization] that Notion of 21 million people I mean that’s bigger than the populations of London New York and Mexico city combined their numbers showed a two-third one-third split Two-thirds involved in labor trafficking forced labor one-third involved in being coerced into the commercial sex trade But most of the victims of human trafficking [are] really going to be in these common industries of making bricks farming rice Rock quarries very very Manual labor which if you looked at it from the outside [you] would have no idea that there was slavery taking place The numbers may be higher the Nature of trafficking makes gathering information Difficult part of them makes trafficking such a complicated issue Is that to really measure the scale of something that happens in a Subterranean? Fashion that is all about the underworld all about things happening [behind] closed doors [I] think it’s extraordinarily difficult to conceive of you know. How many people are trafficked It’s also the definitional issue if a child is 12 [years] old, and he’s working making rugs is the forced labor You know making money for the family so they [can] eat and supporting them It’s helping the family work in the back room. Just forced [labor] So a great deal of it is unreported Profits generated from Forced labor can add up to a hundred and fifty billion dollars a year it’s about the third most profitable Criminal activity in the world they’re about 30 million slaves in the world [that] how much profit is generated to some degree depends on the type of slavery The most profitable form of slavery is sex trafficking, but there’s a profit in every form [B] There’s not one structure to human trafficking there are Traffickers that maybe a couple individuals or a husband and wife and then you can have larger organizations such as the mogul [F] [ski] organization out of the former soviet Union That had human trafficking as one element of its larger criminal profile Human trafficking is not illegal immigration an act. Which is committed voluntarily the trafficking victims protection act that came out in the year 2000 Essentially defines the crime in three buckets one is children being held in the commercial sex trade Two is adults who are in this commercial sex trade? But they’re through force fraud or coercion and three is anyone forced to work in some sort of labor or services Again through Force fraud or coercion. Can you walk away? Are you being? Compelled are you being compensated are you in debt? How did you get here so you can ask these questions and find out whether it is [slightly] Broadly speaking human beings are trafficked from poorer regions to wealthier ones But it’s not uncommon for victims to remain in the area where they were once free Trafficking doesn’t have to go across borders it can be within this country It doesn’t have to be any great movement usually it could be within the same town the same province the same state We’ve been having to explain to everyone that Human trafficking is a euphemism that we should look past those words and look back at the original intent Which [is] that nobody [should] be subjected to slavery? Three-quarters of those slaves or modern victims of trafficking are in three countries? They’re in India Pakistan and China and in fact in [one] country India there are 15 million people held as victims of human trafficking And so you have in one country a more than half the victims in the world though much of the trafficking trade occurs in Asia the u.s. Is not IMmune I Know that a lot [of] Americans will think oh my goodness. This is so far away from me It’s really you know not in my Bailiwick But actually if you [look] around you even in New York City in Boston in Washington DC you will find traffic girls, and they may be People who are very close to you much closer than you even think we have an estimate that there’s a hundred thousand children in prostitution in the United States which is a giant number of children being commercially sexually exploited it is a National problem right now there are there are almost? 300,000 children [I’m] not talking about adult women 300,000 children that are being trafficked right here within our borders Japan is a gigantic market Korea is a gigantic market parts of Southeast, Asia Thailand Cambodia are also huge markets And I think I wouldn’t underestimate places like the united states the un suggests more than a quarter of trafficking victims are [children] girls and Boys unable to defend themselves against lives as Factory workers prostitutes child Soldiers or domestic servants A very large proportion of the victims of human trafficking are children the perpetrators are going to actually focus Intentionally on those who are most vulnerable Who can I most easily coerce into my rock quarry into my brick Factory who can I control with violence most easily? Without them fighting back Every three [children] [trafficked] [or] girls and most of them are involved in sexual exploitation it varies by region Some places like in the [middle] East a lot of forced labor Africa similarly children involved in forced labor [or] sexual exploitation in Europe a Largely sexual exploitation it’s more of teenagers, but they’re sometimes younger than teenagers But they work in Brickwork in Africa they work in getting fish in cocoa plantations and others and sometimes children in Africa have been trafficked into being child soldiers for conflicts very young teenage girls Have been trafficked partly because their families [are] desperate. They don’t have any way of sustaining themselves and Girls are in any case often considered had a marginal members of the family the most disposable members of the family the international labour Organization the Ilo estimates that perpetrators can earn four thousand dollars a year from a person in forced labor trafficking for sexual exploitation accounts for a larger share 58 percent of the trade and is focused in Europe North America and Central Asia there was a ring of high-end trafficked women from the soviet union operating in Los Angeles [in] that case the business generated about seven million dollars a year and In the business of hispanic brothels in which women are trafficked From Latin America to serve migrant labor the profits for a trafficker may be a million dollars a year so it very much Depends on the market that’s being served on the criminal side [two-thirds] of those working in human trafficking rings are men, but it’s a popular crime for women to [30%] of human trafficking convictions are women more than double the [average] rate of women’s convictions for any other crime Women have an additional advantage and that is that they seem to have a strong capacity to win the trust of those who are vulnerable? That a woman can win the trust of a young woman To lure her away from her village to come to a city and then she’s trafficked in the commercial sex trade Some of them even may have been trafficked victims earlier in their careers But made the horrible choice of becoming the girlfriend of [one] of the traffickers to survive At some point though she becomes the criminal herself, so it’s a bit like the stockholm syndrome where you begin to [identify] with the person who’s captured you you begin to see this as Your aspiration to be a good trafficker regardless of where trafficking occurs violence and intimidation are a common theme the most marginalized people are the victims of human [trafficking] and they are trying to better themselves in their lives and That desires then grabbed onto by a trafficker to move them out of their family in their community Sometimes out of their country to a place where they can be exploited with violence. It was horrible because [they] didn’t fit you they put you into the darkness no food alcohol and Braque on the table They scared me with a gun with a knife with a baseball bat and Also, they have epaulet stats to scare me, so at that moment. I didn’t know How my life looked like but I? [applied] this [is] [life] The problem of human trafficking [has] taken hold in the international Community’s collective conscience and steps are being taken to combat There are a lot of challenges. We face all over the world from Education to climate change a lot of issues that I care about this issue of Modern slavery is one though that [I] think goes to the heart of our Moral obligation historically there was in [Fact] by the Global Community [a] great decision to end Slavery as a matter of law and what we have to decide now is whether to turn that decision about law and policy into a permanent reality The un and its partner the ilo have developed legal frameworks agreed to by most of the international community [to] combat the tree the United nations beginning of the 2000s adopted A convention on transnational crime and along with [this] convention were protocols on human smuggling and trafficking and Most of the countries in the world are now signatories And this is simply to have standards that invoke criminal penalties for those who engage in trafficking [to] ensure that there’s inspection of workplaces and to ensure that workers know what their rights are We as the bureau of international labor affairs are the lead us government representative at the international labor organization And just this past june at the International Labour conference We worked very hard to negotiate a new binding protocol it will help advance efforts to combat forced labor in trafficking and some of the worst forms of child labor by Explicitly calling for countries to adopt and implement tools that will help prevent protect and compensate the victims of this basic human rights violation because of these treaties governments agree to provide legal protections for Victims however challenges still remain policing forced labor is difficult and Prosecution for traffickers is low in many parts of the [world] the law enforcement that’s supposed to be enforcing the law are complicit in the human trafficking because of endemic corruption The only reason that human trafficking can flourish in the world today like it does is because of impunity [that] [is] to say a lack of simple law enforcement people who are the victims often are reluctant to come forward? Because they could miss [belief] that they’re going to be put in jail incarcerated or deported Often they come across borders without the necessary papers And they’re unaware of their human rights even when I got the police officer They didn’t believe me I Went the consul general to [exhale] They didn’t help me Aiesec helped in the community they didn’t believe me Until [one] day. I met someone [that] connect me [to] FBI and I could help in my life Getting better now Non-governmental organizations around the world have taken up the charge as well raising awareness Offering [rehabilitation] or in some cases Operating anonymous tip lines for people to call in suspected forced labor or human trafficking Situations there’s the beginning of a coalition of Civil Society organizations Stretching across many countries that is coming together to fight slavery [there’s] mounting evidence About what’s effective? There’s [an] end slavery. We actually have to know how to end it the global movement can do way better When it comes to hot lines when it comes to prevention messaging when it comes to? Educating people about their rights before they get into a job [where] they migrate for a job much of our attention has been on rescuing [victims] but unfortunately in the world today There’s an endless supply of victims and we’re not doing enough to go after the business of human trafficking to go after this the way we go after the drug trade to Try and reduce the profitability and increase the risk for the traffickers refugees People who have fled war or conflict are particularly vulnerable the un is working to Raise awareness So that at-risk populations do not fall prey to the crime cartels Over and over all around the world we seen the refugee populations are particularly vulnerable to trafficking if one looks at the recent evolution In 2011 all over the world we had 14,000 people displaced by conflict per day internally and externally in 2012 23,000 in 2013 32,000 conflict regions are major sources of trafficking victims because individuals lose their social support they’ve had the people who are the traditional [protectors] and their families the husband’s the Father’s the Brothers Killed and therefore the women are are especially vulnerable So one of the things that’s so important whenever we’re setting up a refugee camp whether it’s through the un or international organization for migration Is to ensure that there is policing so that when the traffickers start sniffing around they realize? That they’re not going to be able to recruit out of the camp Sometimes it’s actually the risk of trafficking that leads people to become refugees and that’s what we saw in this recent exodus of children from some of the Central American countries what these children were doing was running away from coming enslaved into criminal gangs as a Global leader the u.s. Is using its [influence] to help curb human trafficking around the world The us State Department issues his annual traffic in persons report and that report Group countries according to Tiers which countries have successfully implementing sort of the principles and recommendations of the protocol on human trafficking that was adopted by the united nations and they’re providing funds as well as Reports and assisting countries in developing skills and knowledge bases and and staff and abilities institutions deal with trafficking we assess the activities of governments along three parameters prevention protection and prosecution and Every year we also rank those governments as to what they’re working on and we put forth recommendations To these countries as to how they can improve with respect to law enforcement With respect to the substantive laws on the books with respect to their own policies with respect to data collection in their efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor Every country is in fact graded on a scale of one [to] three And the [lower] numbers are good numbers the higher the number [the] worse the behavior [of] the country through the state Department’s report there is a clearer definition of human trafficking and the consequences of allowing it to take Place I Have seen governments in the developing world Completely transform their willingness to fight trafficking on the basis of their relationship with the United States And on the basis of the international community’s insistence that they do something about it a country [that] Is on tier three in the United States annual trafficking persons report could be [subjected] to sanctions? Everything from a restrictions on us foreign [assistance] And military aid to the United States having to vote against them in international financial Institutions like the world bank and others. It’s sometimes used in a very political fashion and hasn’t been very Effective in getting states to be more responsive it has worked in some cases that are dependent on us aid But for many countries that are poor and under-resourced Trafficking is not one of their priorities The us must also take actions within its own borders to stop traffickers and support the victims We operate the national human trafficking resource center for the United States. Which is the 24-hour? National Hotline on Human trafficking for America We were able to propose and then the legislature passed our legislation that greatly strengthens how we treat Traffickers, and how we help the victims of it and making it a very very serious crime [in] Arizona One of the things that’s interesting about the American anti-trafficking law is that we are required to give Restitution to the victims and so the court has [to] an analysis in every one of these cases as to what the value Of their services whether or not it was legal for them to be doing that thing or not the business community which can indirectly fund forced labor in other countries can help the [situation] to If you’re a company, that’s engaged in production You can hire expertise to help monitor your supply chain and make Sure that your products are not being produced by slave Labor in the country that where your factories are located Stopping traffickers is important, but helping victims to start a new life can’t be ignored You actually started out in a place [of] desperate poverty and you will go right back [to] a place of vulnerability if there aren’t appropriate Aftercare services [there] are still a ways to go in the [u.s.] resources for [victim] [services] [for] shelters and Victim care not where they need to be When you find a trafficking [victim] the federal standard is they should be treated like a victim destroyed in me poopy poop because in United State Still don’t believe if human trafficking happen in our community in our our backyard as a survivor [as] an Outcome the biggest challenge is how we empower? so pfeiffer To get back on their feet It’s going to take more than reports and laws to put an end to the problem It’s going to take persistence at every level from Criminal Prosecution [to] victim assistance Before we see an end to the trade in human beings Great decisions is produced by the foreign policy association in association with Thomson reuters Funding for great decisions is provided by price Waterhouse Coopers llp you


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