Global Grand Challenges: Accelerating 21st Century Cures for Animal and Human Health


Thank you so much Jan for that wonderful
introduction and thanks to everybody who’s here for the third and final panel,
and I know we’re between you and the refreshments, and the socializing, and we
also have a panel of 9 faculty members who I think are going to do
their best to limit their remarks to two and a half minutes, but that doesn’t
belittle the amount of knowledge that they have, and they’re a really important
research that they’re doing. So, we’re going to talk today in this panel about
accelerating 21st century cures for animal and human health. As I mentioned,
the faculty members here today are from two colleges, College of Veterinary
Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and Natural Sciences, showing great breadth
of disease research across colleges at Colorado State University, and this panel
was inspired by federal legislation that’s currently being considered in
Congress that’s been sponsored and promoted by Ms. Diana to get the
representative from the first congressional district of Colorado, so
really excited about that advocacy and this legislation would help to advocate
for acceleration of cures for pressing health care problems, both chronic
diseases and emerging diseases across the globe. So, while there’s been
admittedly great gains in the process for healthcare delivery and exciting new
discoveries of drugs that have helped to mitigate some of our epidemic diseases
there’s still a lot of work to be done in providing cures for a lot of our most
important diseases, and one of the statistics that’s difficult to
understand and also a real limitation to how fast we can produce the next
generation of drugs or the new diagnostics to, to identify diseases, is
that the average time it takes from the time a drug is identified as a potential
therapeutic agent for disease until it’s actually tested, and safely branded by
the FDA, and then manufactured, and released to the public is 10 years and
the cost for production of this single therapeutic agent is over two and a half
billion dollars. So, that’s a huge limitation to how, how we can actually
continue to improve human health and well-being not only locally Colorado
nationally and then across the globe so why does it take so long what are some
of the limitations that limit the potential for discovery to market and
sorry for this pretty boring slide. I was looking at all everybody’s beautiful
slides a lot. This slide is going to be kind of a dud, but and I’m pretty proud
I’m not using my notes very much, but this was a little cue for me to, to talk
about something that’s really important, and that’s basic science discover. This
is the type of experimentation that’s required to even come up with an idea of
how can we have the next best vaccine or how can we have a new type of drug, for
example that would be able to treat antimicrobial resistance for organisms
that are already resistant to every known antibiotic. Those types of
infections are becoming more and more common, being seen in hospitals and very
commonly seen in the general public and we have to have very specific knowledge
about varied menu details of the agents that cause those diseases in order to
get some clues about what’s a specific molecular tool we can use that will
cause that microbe to be impacted negatively so that disease is mitigated,
but it doesn’t cause very severe disease for the person or the animal that’s
getting that drug, so there’s very sophisticated study that might be very
molecularly oriented and those are some things that occur at CSU and are really
vital to feeding the pre-pipeline of new drugs and discoveries. This is also true,
not just for microbes but for diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease,
that afflict a great number of not only Americans, but these are becoming global
issues in health of human populations, and in order to find better cures with
less side effects we really need to understand the physiology at a very basic
level. You all have heard about disease emergence and Ebola and West Nile Virus
the Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome that’s now a problem in South Korea for
reasons we don’t stand and in order to able for us to
understand how and predict the next emergent infection, we have to consider
ecology and this gets to the broader global issues that the other panels have
talked about. It’s not just the pathogen itself, but it’s how the environment
causes that pathogen to emerge and the reservoirs for these diseases are often
animal hosts. I think one of our panelists, Dr. Bowen is going to show
some statistics about the number of diseases that originate, infectious
diseases, that originate and wildlife or in animals and it’s, it’s, more than fifty
percent, so we have to study these factors as well to be able to make
predictive models and to be able to try to estimate when the next infection may
occur and how dangerous it would be. An example of this would be, we had several
cases of a pretty rare disease called Tularemia occur in people in Larimer
County last year. So why in the world did that happen? This is a rare disease it’s,
it’s a bacteria called Francisella Tularensis that’s responsible for this disease. It’s actually considered a select agent, so
it could be weaponized and is one of the pathogens while
studying the lab we need to be very careful about how we handle it, but we
have people walking into their doctors offices in Larimer County with this this
infection. Well, it turns out this agent
which is cause, is carried, usually, normally, in rabbit populations was
hyper abundant last year because we had a couple of factors that came to bare. We
had high rainfall in the spring that caused a lot of brush and feed for the rabbit
population and we also simultaneously had diseases going
through the predator species. So, fox and coyotes had outbreaks of distemper,
sotheir populations were down and these two factors allowed this amazing populations of
rabbits to proliferate in Larimer County. I noticed. I live on a country road and I was counting
the rabbits on the way home and it was just like every two feet there was another
rabbit and I was thinking this is an evolutionary process that pretty soon the rabbits that
don’t get across the road won’t be in the population anymore,
but nevertheless, this huge abundance of rabbits caused more focal concentrations of tularemia
that provided more environmental exposure to people, and without
really realizing that, without having our diagnostic
lab at CSU to identify this problem in rabbits, it might have gone by
the wayside and it might have caused significant disease and even death in people that were
infected because it’s such a rare agent. So, that’s an example of how we need to understand
all the factors that contribute to disease emergence in order to be more prepared and
then finally diagnostics are an important type of new measure that we
have to consider. The days of taking 20 mils of blood from a
person and sending it to the lab and having it cultured and getting the results two weeks
later is just not going to be the type of medicine we can practice, and so we have
multiple individuals at CSU that are working on improved diagnostics. So, all of those things fit into this more
horrendous type of pipeline which shows that for ten thousand drugs, once they’re identified
as potential therapeutic agents only one of them actually ends up going to market, because
along the way of the animal testing and the clinical testing -that needs to occur,
those are weeded out, and that’s why it takes ten years and two and a half billion
dollars for one drug to come to market. So, at CSU, we have people working all along
this pathway and four of our speakers, I characterized as individuals who
are working in the early discovery arena primarily, but then we have speakers today that I’ll
talk about their work in laboratory modeling and animal testing and also individuals who
are doing human clinical trials along the pathway from efficacy to FDA review, and even
a unique area at CSU for drug production, so the panel that we have today we have initially
one of our early career faculty Elizabeth Ryan who’s already, her works already, been
talked about by Jan where she’s using a food waste
product to. to look at nutritional impacts to developing
countries in particular. Dr. Greg Ebel is the director
of our world-renowned Arbovirus-borne Infectious Disease Laboratory at Colorado State University,
which is a group of about eight faculty studying diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and other
insects, such as malaria. Dick Bowen will talk about his really interesting
work on disease reservoirs. Dick in his lab, has done work
on camels, bats, alligators, and a whole variety of other Noah’s Ark to look at what
the role of those animals are in transmitting infection to humans. Dr. Mary Jackson is the director of the Mycobacteria
Research Lab. This is another center at CSU that’s a world-class
institution studying everything from the microbiology to the macro-biology of Tuberculosis disease,
and then Dr. Diane Ordway is a faculty member in this group who’s going to talk about her
novel diagnostic work to detect multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis infections
in people and her work is funded by the Gates Foundation. Dr. Melissa Reynolds is going to talk about
her work. She’s a chemist and she’s determined ways
to manufacture implants which we all would have if we went to the doctor and got a catheter
or had other types of interventions that are safer and result in fewer side effects
for patients that are needing to have those medical technologies, and then Dr. Chuck Henry
is going to talk about his work to identify infectious agents in
particular, but other types of biologicals using inexpensive, accurate sensor technologies. Dr. Rod Page will talk about his work as director
of the Flint Animal Cancer Center, another center at CSU that’s the, the world-renowned
center for veterinary cancer therapy and how there’s exciting new opportunities to translate
the findings in animals that have naturally occurring cancers that translate specifically
to human cancers and that can actually potentially accelerate that drug
development pipeline and result in great advances for both veterinary and human therapies, and
then our final speaker Dr. Dennis Pierro will get to talk
about his, his institute, Biomark, which is a good manufacturing practice
facility at CSU that can gear up to make these biologicals for therapies and for diagnostics. So, this is the tip of the iceberg of the
cream of the crop faculty that are working on some of these issues, but just to say,
just to let you know, there are nearly 80 faculty at CSU that are working on infectious
disease research and last year they expanded in their laboratories nearly 50 million dollars
to look for cures and accelerate the drug delivery process for human health, and I think
with that we will have our panel come up I did one other thing. I want to mention is that we do have a lot
of collaborations with people who have already been in the previous panels and we have a
new initiative at CSU called the One Health Institute and our new director Dr. Bruno Sobral,
he’s actually in the audience here, he’ll be starting in
the fall but this is a this is a institute that actually looks at the implications of
environmental animal and human health and in a systems biology approach that will attack
some of these big problems in a solution oriented way. So, with that, I’ll ask my panel to come up,
and we’ll do our best to give you a great snapshot of our, our work at CSU, and I guess
I’m sitting on the tall chairs. Hi, my name is Elizabeth Ryan and I’m gonna
tell you a little bit about a condition that everybody’s experienced, okay? Diarrhea. Everybody’s had it, right? I mean it’s horrible, horrible, and you don’t
want to have it very long and, you know, it’s going
to end and you’re gonna be okay, all right, I mean this is, but in the developing countries,
this is not the case and we’ve known this for decades,
okay, and we’ve come up with solutions: water sanitation, we’ve tried oral rehydration salts,
we’ve done all kinds of environmental cleanup. I mean, there’s, that it’s still, we’re still
having this massive problem, particularly in children under the age of five, and particularly
when you have these conditions of malnutrition, and so, you know, one of the, we need to come
up with some new solutions and, and so, one of the ideas came back from something I’d
heard about, which was in a small part of India where
there was you know uses of rice bran and so, as Jan mentioned earlier this is a byproduct
of rice processing. 70 million metric tons of rice bran are produced
every year. Most of it is largely wasted and used for
animal feed, though. I mean now more and more I’d say as we go
around the country we know it’s being used for animal feed. We just started in the laboratory though about
four or five years ago with money from the Bill and Linda Gates Foundation to do some
pre-clinical work and animal models and just see how effective is it for
salmonella, E coli, rotavirus the leading causes of gastroenteritis and children and
we’ve had some great results and so I’m proud to say now that we’ve been
developing rice bran as a food ingredient and we’re feeding infants and young children
in places like Nicaragua and Mali in west Africa to start. We’re
hoping to expand these studies and find out if there’s some opportunity to really prevent
and address this diarrheal disease condition and also simultaneously address some of the
malnutrition that’s making it really a major cause of morbidity and mortality today. Okay, so, thanks my name is Greg Ebel and
I’m the director of the CSU Arthropod-Borne and
Infectious Diseases lab. I want to start by directing your attention
to the figure that I stole from Bill Gates’s blog on the left side of the screen that lists
the impact of the most deadly animals in the world, which should be immediately
obvious to you when you look at that figure that the most deadly animal on the planet
is not a shark or a rattlesnake or a lion or a bear. It’s a mosquito. They’re even more deadly than
human beings. So, the reason that they’re so deadly is that
when they take a blood meal from you, which they need to do in order to complete their
life cycle, they have the opportunity to inoculate viruses, parasites, and other pathogens and
there’s a lot of great examples of these. We heard about West Nile virus
already, Chikungunya virus, and Dengue viruses, or persistent problems in the tropics, and
this is to say nothing of malaria which impacts millions of people
each year. So, the Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Disease
laboratory at CSU as to mentioned, is 9 faculty. We’re incredibly collaborative and integrated
and our goal is essentially to make that red box smaller, that’s what we’re trying to do,
and so in order to do that the faculty that are part of our group have both basic science
and applied projects. Some examples of the basic science that
we’re doing include studies of RNA virus, evolution mechanisms of insecticide resistance,
all kinds of different projects. We also have a lot of applied
projects that tend to be towards vaccine development, finding new uses for old drugs. There’s a picture of one of our faculty members
at the bottom-center who is using Ivermectin to help control malaria
in central Africa. We also are very excited because we’re thinking
about new ways of using mosquitoes and so, for the last few seconds, I only have two
minutes and 30 of them. I want to I want to just tell you about a
project that we’re really excited about, because we’re thinking about using mosquitoes in a
completely different way. So, the idea
here is that mosquitoes are biting people in resource-poor parts of the world all the
time, and they’re doing it anyway, and the idea is that in those mosquitoes there is
blood and that the blood has information about the health of the people, and so, what we’re
doing is, we have developed collaborators in, at the Department of Defense,
and in Liberia, and throughout the world and we’ve been very fortunate to be supported
by the Defense Department and by our CSU VPR. We take the mosquitoes that have fed on people
living in huts, we bring them back to the lab squeeze out the contents of their of their
blood, of their mid guts on to filter paper, which preserves the content,
and then we can bring that back to the lab and analyze it, and why we’re so excited about
this is we just recently have been getting some new data and it seems like it actually
works. So, not only is a new way of using and looking
at mosquitoes, but we think we’re actually going to be able to use this for biosurveillance. My name is Dick Bowen, I virtually everything
I do is collaborative. The thing that gets myself and my students,
most of my students, up in the morning is the study of the so-called emerging infectious
diseases. Now that that term is used a lot and
really what it kind of means is pathogens that are newly recognized or are showing up
in new spots around the world. So, the Ebola outbreak that we witnessed recently
is still considered an emerging infection, infectious disease. So, my primary interest is in the animal
reservoirs for these emerging infectious diseases and as Sue kind of alluded to that pie chart
on the on the first slide indicates an important point and that is
that it’s, it’s crystal clear that roughly two-thirds of these deadly, if you will, emerging
infectious diseases of humans originated in some kind of an animal reservoir and half
of them actually in wildlife. So, as people
encroach on wildlife territories more and more were coming in contact with their pathogens. Next slide. So, the virus I thought I would tell you about
is, is a truly emerging infection and that’s MERS Coronavirus. So, MERS stands for the Middle East Respiratory
Syndrome Virus. This was first recognized in 2012 in a patient
that died in Arabia and it has since been recognized in a number of those Middle Eastern
countries. Of course, with transport, global transport
systems as they are today, it was inevitable and it has occurred that people travel to
the Middle East pick up that virus go back to
their own countries and spread this virus across the world, so you also just mention
the recent or the ongoing outbreak in South Korea. As of this morning, there have been a hundred
and 22 confirmed cases of MERS in South Korea and 9 fatalities. So, the big question when MERS was first discovered
is where is this coming from, and most people myself included assume that there’s got to
be some kind of an animal reservoir, the two, the two species high on the suspect list initially
were bats insectivorous bats and camels and there’s. So, so, a part of our capability at CSU is
we have the facilities and the expertise that allow us to safely manipulate
these viruses and look at their effects on natural hosts, a variety
of natural hosts, and so, so, we started looking at bats and camels. The story in bats is an anti-climax, really
quite boring. If we inoculated two species of insect, Deborah’s
bats, granted they were North American bats, with this virus and saw no shedding, no disease,
nothing there, and there hasn’t really been any field
data to support the role of bats in the epidemiology of MERS. Camels were
also highly suspect, and we, as you see in that one picture with one of my graduate students. She’s not really that small, it’s just kind
of this scale. We don’t use children in these studies, but,
but, but when we inoculated dromedary camels with this virus they developed an extremely
mild respiratory disease that might even go unnoticed, but what they did was shed huge
amounts of virus and nasal secretions and the amounts of virus that I think it’s just
obvious that would infect humans in contact with
those camels. So, what we’re doing now to proceed from that
particular study is we’re collaborating with National Institutes of Health and some other
groups to test vaccines in camels. The idea being that if we could develop a
vaccine that would protect camels and decrease or eliminate shedding, then that would be
useful in protecting human populations. So, I’m Mary Jackson. I’m a bacteriologist and a geneticist and
I serve as a director of the Mycobacterial research laboratories at CSU. So, the main focus of our research is tuberculosis,
the second most deadly infectious disease in the world after HIV/AIDS and we study TB
in humans of course, but we also studied TB in livestock and wildlife and the transmission
of TB from animal to humans and vice-versa. We are also interested in two neglected topical
diseases caused by mycobacteria. One is leprosy and the other one is a Buruli
Ulcer and in more recent years we got interested in some, so-called, non-tuberculous mycobacteria
because some of them are presently considered emerging pathogens, causing more and more
infections including hospital-acquired infection, throughout the world and some epidemic lineages
are apparently emerging. So, as you can imagine, each of
these diseases really pose unique challenges, but I think it’s fair to say that for all
of them, in each of them, there is an unmet medical need in terms of diagnostic therapeutics
and vaccines, and secondly, all of these bacteria are intrinsically extremely resistant to antibiotics
which makes the infection that goes obviously very difficult to treat. Next slide please. So, how do we make a difference at CSU? So, the first thing is that we are about 160
researchers at CSU including 24 faculty, 80 students, postdoctoral fellows in training,
working on, on these bacteria which makes us the largest academic group dedicated to
the study of mycobacterial diseases in the United States, and possibly in the world,
and the second thing that’s important to emphasize is that CMRL mycobacteria research labs pioneered
a lot of the animal models of infections that are currently used
in the preclinical testing of drug vaccines and diagnostics, and so, this allows us to
test not only products and ideas coming from our own research, but we
also test for all the labs throughout the world. Private companies and
foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, can do drugs and vaccines that
go through our preclinical models and, from there, we help people decide if this product
should advance to clinical trials or not. So, that’s all I’m allowed to tell you about
the MRI right now. Someone’s going to shut me off otherwise,
but I’ll hand it over to my colleague Diane Ordway who is going to tell you more about
the work she’s doing on the diagnostics of multidrug-resistant TB. So, my name is Diane Ordway and I’m an infectious
disease immunologist, and so, it’s one shocking fact is actually, there’s an extra 10 million
people this year that will lose their lives to
drug-resistant infections, and so it’s one thing to read this in a report, but it’s quite
a different thing to actually work with patients that have drug-resistant infections and so,
as you see on the slide, this is Miguel he came into the Hospital Egas Moniz in Lisbon,
Portugal where I was working and he was diagnosed with mycobacterium Tuberculosis. You can call it TBE or tuberculosis, which
Miguel got this infection from somebody else that was
coughing it up and he breathed it in and so, he had a drug sensitive infection and what
this bacteria does when it gets into your lungs is it basically destroys
your lungs. Obviously, you need your lungs to live, so
it’s very lethal and so he had a drug sensitive strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis, and
so basically the clinicians gave him a standard drug treatment regime of nine months and sent
him on his way. Unfortunately, what
happened is Miguel, about six months later, showed up in the clinic coughing up blood. So, what Miguel did is he started to feel
better on the drugs he stopped taking the drugs and then the infection came back the
bacteria changed, and so, in the clinic, he had acquired a multidrug-resistant infection,
which is very complicated because he ended up having to take more toxic drugs that cost
a lot more money and for a lot longer time, so he inevitably developed various complications
to these more toxic drugs, and, although he fought a really
good battle for three years, he lost his life and so, it really is quite
different as I said reading a report and actually working with patients with drug resistance. My research is really focused on getting new
non-invasive point of care diagnostics for patients like Miguel, on patients all around
the world and it’s based on breath exhaled breath, so using breath as a rapid diagnostic
parameter, and so, what we’re doing at CSU is actually using exhaled breath we’re
breaking down the components of that exhaled breath into molecules, and so, we can detect
from breath because there’s a molecular shedding of your blood through
your lung cavity of any type of infections you have, so we can identify that infection,
specific infection, and then also identify if that infection is drug resistant or drug
susceptible. So, we’re using discoveries with our
preclinical modeling and we’re also trying to increase efficacy obviously in the public
human health sector if you see the slide where the individual is taking
a breath sample. It’s much like asthmatics do routinely in
this country to monitor their asthma and also much like the alcohol breath test. So, we’re really wanting to shove this technology,
so we can use handheld breath analyzers, not just this large current equipment that we
use to analyze breath, but also using a lot of Chuck
Henry’s sensor arrays so that we can actually have positive and negative readouts of whether
an individual is infected with a certain pathogen and if it’s drug-resistant or not. That’s all. One -back. Perfect! My name is Melissa Reynolds and I’m from the
Department of Chemistry and School of Biomedical Engineering, and what I want to talk to
you a little bit about today is some of the work that my students have been working on
in terms of making safer more effective medical devices. So, clotting and infection still remain a
huge problem with medical device technologies. In fact, in surgical centers usually
teams of physicians are required to basically manage the clotting versus material type of
interactions. Infection
is also a huge problem. Once implanted, devices become infected. Really the best course of action is to remove
them and then replace them, and I’m sure none of us here in this room want that to happen
to us, so the real question that we try to ask is how do we move from these
devices that are prone to these negative interactions, to those that it can actually support and
overcome these types of interactions. So, we do this by thinking about how we can
change or use medical devices to work in concert with what our body does naturally and secondarily
we think about how can we create these new types of materials platforms, and, at the
same time, integrate them into current manufacturing processes. This is the idea of being able to accelerate
the idea of bench to bedside with medical device technologies. So, the latest example that my students have
been able to create is they’ve created these tiny little crystals that you can put on catheters,
or on stents, or on vascular grafts that when exposed to the blood will not pose any toxic
or systemic effects, which means that if patients received our devices, which they haven’t,
yet, they’re not on the market, you would be able to use them without having to take
anticoagulants for the rest of your life, and at the same time, we’ve been able to work
with other companies to be able to think about how we can integrate these
into their own manufacturing processes, and I think this is a real big
key for translating technologies in the medical device space out of the university, that is,
we aren’t requiring manufacturers to create a new process which
that increase the cost of the devices at the end instead we’re
integrating that all into the chemistry that the students have created and published on
and in that way, we use material design approaches with manufacturing
integration to be able to accelerate the bench to bedside to be able to bring better medical
devices to the public. So, my name is Chuck. I’m a faculty member and chemistry, chemical
biological engineering and biomedical engineering and, as was alluded to
earlier, I want to talk a little bit about sensing and new sensor chemistry, and really,
I think the story that starts this is, is going back to what Elizabeth said, that we’ve
all experienced that, the negative side effects of food poisoning, and sometimes that’s a
inconvenience and sometimes it’s significantly uncomfortable,
but it can also be deadly, you know, as experienced and they’re showing on the slide here of the,
the Listeria outbreak that originated out of out of Colorado. So, if you ask yourself why ,why can’t we
address this problem better, I mean we can send, as one of the, the audience knows, people
into space, but yet we know, in this case, what Listeria does to us, but we can’t stop
it when we like to. Why is that? I would argue that it’s because at this time
the way we do that is takes too long and cost too much, and so, well, the way we’re addressing
this -could you go to the next slide, Sue- is thinking about taking traditional diagnostic
tools, like shown here on, on the left, as you’re
looking the side, that are housed in a large centralized laboratory that take a long time
at a high cost to give results that may or may not be relevant and translate those in
this case in the sense that can provide relevant results at the point of care when they’re
needed. In our lab we’re doing this with very simple
materials: sensors made from filter paper and wax and, and very common everyday
materials we’re part of a larger team on campus. They’re developing sensors out of a variety
of materials that include people like Kim Reardon who spoke earlier and are going even
though beyond simply the sensors, but what do we do with the data how do we process the
data and then the last step which is how do we really think about this how is a society
we interact with this data if we’re going to if we’re going to do these kind of measurements
at the citizen level to better understand the spread of disease and how we can prevent
it from entering into the human system. Hi, I’m Rod Page. I’m the director of the Flint Animal Cancer
Center. The Flint Animal Cancer
Center is the largest center devoted to the understanding and treatment of companion animal
cancer in the world. We have about 20-25 faculty and about a hundred
people all together across campus that are involved with basic and translational research
both for the benefit of animals and humans. We’ve been in existence for probably about
30-35 years and have been funded through that time period by federal and corporate and philanthropic
sources to conduct research that looks at some of the
fundamental opportunities to integrate cancer research and treatment across species in addition
to managing the, the patients that walk through our doors. These are animals that develop cancer, either,
very spontaneously or over the course of their lifetime. They’re owned by
individuals that come from around the world to see us because of the technology and the
expertise that has developed at CSU. There’s about a million dogs and about maybe
half million cats a year that get cancer. In comparison, there’s about a half a million
people a year that get cancer, so our premise is that cancer is cancer. The more we look, depending on what sort of
platform you want to, want to use, we can’t distinguish
a cancer and a dog from a cancer and a human. We can certainly distinguish the dog and the
human, but under the microscope and from an expression analysis
platform we can’t tell which is which, they randomly assort. That gives us opportunities to investigate
new types of treatments and targets that might be available that will come along. A couple of examples of some of the things
that have happened here over the last couple of decades. On the left of your screen is Emily brown
who was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the spine when she was 10. Through research that we conducted and through
the cooperation with her pediatric oncologist at Children’s Hospital in Denver, we identified
a particular compound that resulted in her being able to overcome some of the resistance
mechanisms that allowed her to continue and she just a year ago graduated from college. On the right is Dr. Steve widow who’s a surgeon
and oncologic surgeon who developed a procedure to save the limbs of dogs that get bone cancer
that is currently the standard of care for kids with bone cancer, and Angela is on the
left, and Angela has just turned about 17. So, these are the opportunities that we have
-and next slide please. What we think we
can do is to create an integrated mechanism where we can utilize the patients that we
see with the human patients that walk into an oncologist office to better accelerate
the pace of cancer drug development. It’s true that over ninety percent of cancer
drugs that are initiated in the clinical trial pipeline never make it. That’s much
higher than in other classes of compounds. One of the reasons is that the traditional
rodent species that are used and the other normal types of evaluations
are just not predictive of the cancer situation in humans. The patients we see are similar, they’re usually
elderly dogs and cats that have concurrent issues that are on medication
similar to human patients might be and we found that we can help to predict whether
a particular drug is going to be particularly tolerable in a human much better
than a rodent or a dog, normal dog’s, treatment process, but we can insert the system throughout
the process of drug development evaluation. So, we believe that the answer to cancer is
usually walking right beside you. My name is Dennis Bureau. I’m the last speaker. Now that I have your attention, I’m very,
very happy to introduce Biomark. It’s a contract manufacturing service unit
of the university. We care and focus on the drug product, that
material that’s inside that vial. I think it goes unnoticed and unthought about
when we do talk about drugs and therapeutics for
or individuals, but our job is to translate basically good ideas into good products and
then get them into humans. We specialize in what’s called GMP production
of high containment biologics. GMP stands for good manufacturing practices,
and this is in the code of Federal Regulations actually on, on how to
manufacture things for human use so we have to follow FDA regulations of course, and that
comes from the code for high containment biologics. The way I describe it is, if you think about
a vaccine, the old classical models to take a bad bug and you grow it up and then you
kill it and it becomes a very good vaccine. You need the infrastructure to grow up that
bad bug at some point and that’s the specialty we have. It’s a very unique infrastructure that the
university has, very few of them across the country on a contract basis, and this is what
we do with the -next slide. We are unique in that we have been FDA inspected,
so we have partnered with a commerce client. One of our products is out on the marketplace
right now. Types of
products that we do manufacturer: tuberculosis diagnostics. We are developing in partnership with the
DoD an Ebola vaccine, West Nile vaccine, we’ve done an HIV vaccine and we can do a clustering
botulinum toxin for, from migraines, and other things. On the left is an HIV vaccine. That’s actually me and on the right, is a
Tuberculosis one. So, just showing the depths of things that
we can do at the University here and again this is us taking good ideas and getting them
to patients. We do partner with academic, government, industry
partners in both U.S. contracts, as well as international contracts. We have about 30 million dollars invested
in our infrastructure, 37 employees, and we do about
5 million dollars a year in revenue. These are contracts and so,
delivering and the short of the message that I’d like to leave you with is this is CSU
to patients, what we make in our facilities and these are regulated facilities, with a
trained personnel, goes into humans in clinical trials or in
partnership on a commercial level so a direct connection between us and the public is Biomark. Okay, congratulations to this excellent panel
for coming in under the wire and we have actually 10 minutes for questions so I hope we have
some interested people with some curious questions. I’m Jay Nuckols, I’m an emeritus professor
at Colorado State from the Department of Environmental Health Sciences and currently reside here
and in the DC area. I’ve got a, II had a question for you because
I spent 10 years here working with the NIH and the National Cancer Institute in epidemiology,
but primarily looking at the association between environmental
agents and cancer, and I think that there I know that there was a great deal of interest
in some of the work that was done by John Rife and others at Colorado State
on using the animal population as a surrogate, the campaign
animal population, as a surrogate for cancer epidemiological studies and I’m just wondering
if that’s still of interest and if that could be developed
in your opinion. Yeah, that work is really, really seminal
to understanding issues related to prevention and early
detection and it is certainly a component of the of the program. In fact, CSU and an animal health foundation
have partnered to create a lifetime longitudinal study to evaluate golden retrievers, which
are you know wonderful dogs, very popular, and seem to have a high
risk of developing cancer to identify the environmental, and dietary, and exposure systems
that work in concert with genetic alterations to produce cancer and other diseases as well
so we do we have a lot Dr. Ryan and I have had had projects looking at environmental
pesticides and, and heavy metals that are influenced and will influence the development
of cancers in companion animals as well, so, it’s still a very, very, very, active area,
but one that we could always use more, more help and so please
come back. Hi, my name is Joe Dudley. I’m a CSU Department of Zoology, 1976 graduate
I’m currently working with the Litos corporation. Question for Dr. Pierro, is the West Nile
virus vaccine you’re working on, is that a horse vaccine or
human vaccine. Most of our contracts are under confidentiality
agreements, but the ones that we do have experience with on are the human side. Okay, thank you. I might just mention that that’s another thing
we have facilities and expertise to do so, if I’m not mistaken, we have done the equine
testing on all of the West Nile equine vaccines that are on the market today. Hi, Carol Lupton. Vet med, 1976. Sue, a question for you. You talked about Tularemia. How did it spread, I mean that’s usually from
hides. Where was it? A different transmission than it usually,
is actually, there were some environmental exposures. So, there’s also the capacity, I think this
happens sometimes when you’re out mowing the lawn and you go over a spot where a rabbit
might have died or there’s been a contamination in the environment and I don’t know the exact
details of the cases, but several of them were environmental exposures. So, people
working outside in their gardens versus the direct contact that’s usually considered. I don’t know if any of you, right so, the
typical, the classic disease expression occurs when a hunter shoots a rabbit which might
be running a little slower because it has Tularemia, and then
skins the rabbit, and there’s usually some cutaneous lesions but there’s also this mnemonic
form that’s usually from inhaling the organisms and its infectious dose is very low, so I
believe that and most of the cases that occurred were from the environmental contact. There weren’t any deaths from it ,but there
were quite a number of people that were exposed in that way. So, I was wondering for Melissa, your group,
a lot of device groups, they are able to sort of be into interdisciplinary with people like
from material science or engineering. Are
there opportunities in your group for say cross pollination across those type of fields
that are also typically involved with device development? Absolutely yes. So, we believe that we can’t really think
about advancing medical device technologies without including everybody in the conversation,
economist’s included, because we have to think about how all the different aspects
of the chemistry, the biology, the engineering go together to try to give
us these types of device platforms. So, in my group, we’ve had engineers, we’ve
had biologists, we I’ve had two business students, and then we have a range of
different types of chemists, so we need, and we, we bring in everybody to help us solve
these problems. Okay, I’ve been signaled that we’re out of
time, but Dr. Rudolph asked to come up and give some closing remarks. So, thanks very much everybody for your attention.

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